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Category Archives: Learn English Free: Study of Literature

First of All, Literature is the Study of Human Behaviour as a hole and always finds its Relations with every faculty of life. I will mainly do some Basic Study of English Literature maily on Literary Terms, Some Schools of Thoughts, Romanticism, Classicism, Victorianism, and Modernism, and Criticism also.

Reverse logistics

Normally, logistics deal with events that bring the product towards the customer. In the case of reverse, the resource goes at least one step back in the supply chain. For instance, goods move from the customer to the distributor or to the manufacturer.

Reverse logistics, picture for, english on business, english for logistics, learn business english free

Reverse logistics

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Blank Verse

Blank Verse consists of lines of iambic pentameter (five-stress iambic verse)
which are unrhymed—hence the term “blank.” Of all English metrical forms
it is closest to the natural rhythms of English speech, and at the same time
flexible and adaptive to diverse levels of discourse; as a result it has been more
frequently and variously used than any other type of versification. Soon after
blank verse was introduced by the Earl of Surrey in his translations of Books 2
and 4 of Virgil’s The Aeneid (about 1540), it became the standard meter for
Elizabethan and later poetic drama; a free form of blank verse is still the
medium in such twentieth-century verse plays as those by Maxwell Anderson
and T. S. Eliot. John Milton used blank verse for his epic Paradise Lost (1667),
James Thomson for his descriptive and philosophical Seasons (1726-30),
William Wordsworth for his autobiographical Prelude (1805), Alfred, Lord Tennyson
for the narrative Idylls of the King (1891), Robert Browning for The Ring
and the Book (1868-69) and many dramatic monologues, and T. S. Eliot for
much of The Waste Land (1922). A large number of meditative lyrics, from the
Romantic Period to the present, have also been written in blank verse, including
Coleridge’s “Frost at Midnight,” Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey,” Tennyson’s
“Tears, Idle Tears” (in which the blank verse is divided into five-line
stanzas), and Wallace Stevens’ “Sunday Morning.”

Divisions in blank verse poems, used to set off a sustained passage, are
called verse paragraphs. See, for example, the great verse paragraph of
twenty-six lines which initiates Milton’s Paradise Lost, beginning with “Of
man’s first disobedience” and ending with “And justify the ways of God to
men”; also, the opening verse paragraph of twenty-two lines in Wordsworth’s
“Tintern Abbey” (1798), which begins:
Five years have past; five summers, with the length
Of five long winters! and again I hear
These waters, rolling from their mountain-springs
With a soft inland murmur.
See meter, and refer to Moody Prior’s critical study of blank verse in The
Language of Tragedy (1964

 

Ballad:

A short definition of the popular ballad (known also as the folk
ballad or traditional ballad) is that it is a song, transmitted orally, which
tells a story. Ballads are thus the narrative species of folk songs, which originate,
and are communicated orally, among illiterate or only partly literate
people. In all probability the initial version of a ballad was composed by a single
author, but he or she is unknown; and since each singer who learns and repeats
an oral ballad is apt to introduce changes in both the text and the tune,
it exists in many variant forms. Typically, the popular ballad is dramatic, condensed,
and impersonal: the narrator begins with the climactic episode, tells
the story tersely by means of action and dialogue (sometimes by means of the
dialogue alone), and tells it without self-reference or the expression of personal
attitudes or feelings.

The most common stanza form—called the ballad stanza—is a quatrain
in alternate four- and three-stress lines; usually only the second and fourth
lines rhyme. This is the form of “Sir Patrick Spens”; the first stanza of this ballad
also exemplifies the conventionally abrupt opening and the manner of
proceeding by third-person narration, curtly sketched setting and action,
sharp transition, and spare dialogue:
The king sits in Dumferling towne,
Drinking the blude-red wine:

• “O whar will I get a guid sailor,
To sail this schip of mine?”

Many ballads employ set formulas (which helped the singer remember the
course of the song) including (1) stock descriptive phrases like “blood-red
wine” and “milk-white steed,” (2) a refrain in each stanza (“Edward,” “Lord
Randall”), and (3) incremental repetition, in which a line or stanza is repeated,
but with an addition that advances the story (“Lord Randall,” “Child
Waters”). (See oral formulaic poetry.)

Although many traditional ballads probably originated in the later Middle
Ages, they were not collected and printed until the eighteenth century,
first in England, then in Germany. In 1765 Thomas Percy published his
Reliques of Ancient English Poetry which, although most of the contents had
been rewritten in the style of Percy’s era, did much to inaugurate widespread
interest in folk literature. The basic modern collection is Francis J. Child’s English
and Scottish Popular Ballads (1882-98), which includes 305 ballads, many
of them in variant versions. Bertrand H. Bronson has edited The Traditional
Tunes of the Child Ballads (4 vols., 1959-72). Popular ballads are still being
sung—and collected, now with the help of a tape recorder—in the British Isles
and remote rural areas of America. To the songs that early settlers inherited
from Great Britain, America has added native forms of the ballad, such as
those sung by lumberjacks, cowboys, laborers, and social protesters. A number
of recent folk singers, including Woody Guthrie, Bob Dylan, and Joan
Baez, themselves compose ballads; most of these, however, such as “The Ballad
of Bonnie and Clyde” (about a notorious gangster and his moll), are closer
to the journalistic “broadside ballad” than to the archaic and heroic mode of
the popular ballads in the Child collection.

A broadside ballad is a ballad that was printed on one side of a single
sheet (called a “broadside”), dealt with a current event or person or issue, and
was sung to a well-known tune. Beginning with the sixteenth century, these
broadsides were hawked in the streets or at country fairs in Great Britain.
The traditional ballad has greatly influenced the form and style of lyric
poetry in general. It has also engendered the literary ballad, which is a narrative
poem written in deliberate imitation of the form, language, and spirit
of the traditional ballad. In Germany, some major literary ballads were written
in the latter eighteenth century, including G. A. Burger’s very popular
“Lenore” (1774)—which soon became widely read and influential in an English
translation—and Goethe’s “Erlkönig” (1782). In England, some of the
best literary ballads were composed in the Romantic Period: Coleridge’s “Rime
of the Ancient Mariner” (which, however, is much longer and has a much
more elaborate plot than the folk ballad), Walter Scott’s “Proud Maisie,” and
Keats’ “La Belle Dame sans Merci.” In Lyrical Ballads of 1798, Wordsworth begins
“We Are Seven” by introducing a narrator as an agent and first-person
teller of the story—”I met a little cottage girl”—which is probably one reason
he called the collection “lyrical ballads.” Coleridge’s “Ancient Mariner,” on
the other hand, of which the first version also appeared in Lyrical Ballads,
opens with the abrupt and impersonal third-person narration of the traditional
Ballad.

It is an ancient Mariner
And he stoppeth one of three….
Gordon H. Gerould, The Ballad of Tradition (1932); W. J. Entwistle, European
Balladry (rev. ed., 1951); M.J. C. Hodgart, The Ballads (2d ed., 1962); John
A. and Alan Lomax, American Ballads and Folk Songs (1934); D. C. Fowler, A
Literary History of the Popular Ballad (1968). For the broadside ballad see The
Common Muse, eds. V. de Sola Pinto and Allan E. Rodway (1957).

 

Allusion :

Allusion is a passing reference, without explicit identification, to a literary
or historical person, place, or event, or to another literary work or passage. In
the Elizabethan Thomas Nashe’s “Litany in Time of Plague,”
Brightness falls from the air,
Queens have died young and fair,
Dust hath closed Helen’s eye,
the unidentified “Helen” in the last line alludes to Helen of Troy. Most allusions
serve to illustrate or expand upon or enhance a subject, but some are
used in order to undercut it ironically by the discrepancy between the subject
and the allusion. In the lines from T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land (1922) describing
a woman at her modern dressing table,

“The Chair she sat in, like a burnished throne,
Glowed on the marble,”

the ironic allusion, achieved by echoing Shakespeare’s phrasing, is to Cleopatra’s
magnificent barge in Antony and Cleopatra (II. ii. 196 ff.):
The barge she sat in, like a burnish’d throne,
Burn’d on the water.

For discussion of a poet who makes persistent and complex use of this
device, see Reuben A. Brower, Alexander Pope: The Poetry of Allusion (1959); see
also John Hollander, The Figure of Echo: A Mode of Allusion in Milton and After
(1981); and Edwin Stein, Wordsworth’s Art of Allusion (1988).

*Lines from “O where are you going?” from W. H. Auden: Collected Poems 1927-1957 by
W. H. Auden, ed. by Edward Mendelson. Copyright ©1934 and renewed 1962 by W. H.
Auden. Reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc., and Faber & Faber Ltd.
**Lines from “The Waste Land” from Collected Poems 1909-1962 by T. S. Eliot, copyright
1936 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., copyright © 1964,1963 by T. S. Eliot. Reprinted by
permission of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich and Faber and Faber Ltd.

Since allusions are not explicitly identified, they imply a fund of knowledge
that is shared by an author and the audience for whom the author
writes. Most literary allusions are intended to be recognized by the generally
educated readers of the author’s time, but some are aimed at a special coterie.
For example, in Astrophel and Stella, the Elizabethan sonnet sequence, Sir Philip
Sidney’s punning allusions to Lord Robert Rich, who had married the Stella of
the sonnets, were identifiable only by intimates of the people concerned. (See
Sonnets 24 and 37.) Some modern authors, including Joyce, Pound, and Eliot,
include allusions that are very specialized, or else drawn from the author’s private
reading and experience, in the awareness that few if any readers will recognize
them prior to the detective work of scholarly annotators. The current
term intertextuality includes literary echoes and allusions as one of the many
ways in which any text is interlinked with other texts.

 

Allegory:

An allegory is a narrative, whether in prose or verse, in which the
agents and actions, and sometimes the setting as well, are contrived by the
author to make coherent sense on the “literal,” or primary, level of signification,
and at the same time to signify a second, correlated order of signification.
We can distinguish two main types: (1) Historical and political allegory,
in which the characters and actions that are signified literally in their turn
represent, or “allegorize,” historical personages and events. So in John Dryden’s
Absalom and Achitophel (1681), King David represents Charles II, Absalom
represents his natural son the Duke of Monmouth, and the biblical story
of Absalom’s rebellion against his father (2 Samuel 13-18) allegorizes the rebellion
of Monmouth against King Charles. (2) The allegory of ideas
, in which
the literal characters represent concepts and the plot allegorizes an abstract
doctrine or thesis. Both types of allegory may either be sustained throughout
a work, as in Absalom and Achitophel and John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress
(1678), or else serve merely as an episode in a nonallegorical work. A famed
example of episodic allegory is the encounter of Satan with his daughter Sin,
as well as with Death—who is represented allegorically as the son born of
their incestuous relationship—in John Milton’s Paradise Lost, Book II (1667).
In the second type, the sustained allegory of ideas, the central device is
the personification of abstract entities such as virtues, vices, states of mind,
modes of life, and types of character. In explicit allegories, such reference is
specified by the names given to characters and places. Thus Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s
Progress allegorizes the Christian doctrine of salvation by telling how
the character named Christian, warned by Evangelist, flees the City of Destruction
and makes his way laboriously to the Celestial City; enroute he encounters
characters with names like Faithful, Hopeful, and the Giant Despair,
and passes through places like the Slough of Despond, the Valley of the
Shadow of Death, and Vanity Fair. A passage from this work indicates the nature
of an explicit allegorical narrative:
Now as Christian was walking solitary by himself, he espied one afar off
come crossing over the field to meet him; and their hap was to meet just
as they were crossing the way of each other. The Gentleman’s name was
Mr. Worldly-Wiseman; he dwelt in the Town of Carnal-Policy a very
great Town, and also hard by from whence Christian came.
Works which are primarily nonallegorical may introduce allegorical imagery
(the personification of abstract entities who perform a brief allegorical
action) in short passages. Familiar instances are the opening lines of Milton’s
L’Allegro and Π Penseroso (1645)
. This device was exploited especially in the poetic
diction of authors in the mid-eighteenth century. An example—so brief
that it presents an allegoric tableau rather than an action—is the passage in
Thomas Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” (1751)
:
Can Honour’s voice provoke the silent dust,
Or Flatt’ry soothe the dull cold ear of Death?

Allegory is a narrative strategy which may be employed in any literary
form or genre. The early sixteenth-century Everyman is an allegory in the form
of a morality play. The Pilgrim’s Progress
is a moral and religious allegory in a
prose narrative; Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene (1590-96) fuses moral,
religious, historical, and political allegory in a verse romance; the third book of
Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels
, the voyage to Laputa and Lagado (1726), is
an allegorical satire directed mainly against philosophical and scientific
pedantry; and William Collins’ “Ode on the Poetical Character” (1747) is a
lyric poem which allegorizes a topic in literary criticism—the nature, sources,
and power of the poet’s creative imagination. John Keats makes a subtle use of
allegory throughout his ode “To Autumn” (1820), most explicitly in the second
stanza, which represents autumn personified as a female figure amid the
scenes and activities of the harvest season.

Sustained allegory was a favorite form in the Middle Ages, when it produced
masterpieces, especially in the verse-narrative mode of the dream vision,
in which the narrator falls asleep and experiences an allegoric dream; this
mode includes, in the fourteenth century, Dante’s Divine Comedy, the French
Roman de la Rose, Chaucer’s House of Fame
, and William Langland’s Piers Plowman.
But sustained allegory has been written in all literary periods and is the
form of such major nineteenth-century
dramas in verse as Goethe’s Faust, Part
II, Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound, and Thomas Hardy’s The Dynasts. In the
present century, the stories and novels of Franz Kafka can be considered instances
of implicit allegory.

 

Act and Scene

An act is a major division in the action of a play. In England
this division was introduced by Elizabethan dramatists, who imitated ancient
Roman plays by structuring the action into five acts. Late in the nineteenth
century a number of writers followed the example of Chekhov and Ibsen by
constructing plays in four acts. In the present century the most common form
for nonmusical dramas has been three acts.
Acts are often subdivided into scenes, which in modern plays usually
consist of units of action in which there is no change of place or break in the
continuity of time. (Some recent plays dispense with the division into acts
and are structured as a sequence of scenes, or episodes.) In the conventional
theater with a proscenium arch that frames the front of the stage, the end of
a scene is usually indicated by a dropped curtain or a dimming of the lights,
and the end of an act by a dropped curtain and an intermission.